What Is the Iceberg of Ignorance
The Iceberg of Ignorance was first developed in 1989 by a consultant named Sidney Yoshida. The Iceberg of Ignorance is a model that addressed concerns about safety awareness in large organizations. This model contends that of all problems:
- Only 4% of problems are known to upper managers;
- Only 9% of problems are known to middle managers;
- 74% of problems are known to supervisors; and
- 100% of problems are known to staff and front-line employees.